This weekend I was schmoozing at an event when some guy asked me what kind of history I study. I said “I’m currently researching the role of gender in Jewish emigration out of the Third Reich,” and he replied “oh you just threw gender in there for fun, huh?” and shot me what he clearly thought to be a charming smile.
The reality is that most of our understandings of history revolve around what men were doing. But by paying attention to the other half of humanity our understanding of history can be radically altered.
For example, with Jewish emigration out of the Third Reich it is just kind of assumed that it was a decision made by a man, and the rest of his family just followed him out of danger. But that is completely inaccurate. Women, constrained to the private social sphere to varying extents, were the first to notice the rise in social anti-Semitism in the beginning of Hitler’s rule. They were the ones to notice their friends pulling away and their social networks coming apart. They were the first to sense the danger.
German Jewish men tended to work in industries which were historically heavily Jewish, thus keeping them from directly experiencing this “social death.” These women would warn their husbands and urge them to begin the emigration process, and often their husbands would overlook or undervalue their concerns (“you’re just being hysterical” etc). After the Nuremberg Laws were passed, and after even more so after Kristallnacht, it fell to women to free their husbands from concentration camps, to run businesses, and to wade through the emigration process.
The fact that the Nazis initially focused their efforts on Jewish men meant that it fell to Jewish women to take charge of the family and plan their escape. In one case, a woman had her husband freed from a camp (to do so, she had to present emigration papers which were not easy to procure), and casually informed him that she had arranged their transport to Shanghai. Her husband—so traumatized from the camp—made no argument. Just by looking at what women were doing, our understanding of this era of Jewish history is changed.
I have read an article arguing that the Renaissance only existed for men, and that women did not undergo this cultural change. The writings of female loyalists in the American Revolutionary period add much needed nuance to our understanding of this period. The character of Jewish liberalism in the first half of the twentieth century is a direct result of the education and socialization of Jewish women. I can give you more examples, but I think you get the point.
So, you wanna understand history? Then you gotta remember the ladies (and not just the privileged ones).
Played a vital role in the foundation of the Socialist International Group. Was one of the main far Left revolutionaries in the German Socialist Party befote World War I. Was good friends with Rosa Luxembourg. One of the main founders of the German Women’s Movement, editor of the newspaper Die Gleichheit, started the first ‘International Women’s Day’ on March 1911. Became involved in WWI anti-war campaigning and was arrested repeatedly in consequence. Founded the Spartacist League and the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD, interviewed Lenin on ‘the women’s question’, was a member of the central office of the German Communist Party, later she became part of its central committee. In August 1932, as the chairwoman of the German Parliament (Reischtag) by seniority, she called for people to fight Nazism. (Clara Zetkin)
Wrote, directed, and animated the oldest surviving full-length stop motion animated film, The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1923) and also anticipated Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks by a decade by devising the first multi-plane animation camera. (Lotte Reiniger)
Pioneered the course of Western liturgical music and theology. (Hildegard von Bingen)
Composed this piece of classical music. Her husband now has more fame and glory, but in their day, he was known as “Clara’s husband.” He once lamented, “But to have children, and a husband who is always living in the realm of imagination, does not go together with composing. She cannot work at it regularly, and I am often disturbed to think how many profound ideas are lost because she cannot work them out.” (Clara Schumann)